Scenes of Carroll County

Online Exhibit
Dr. Alonzo E. Quinn (left) and stonemasons, Grandview, Arkansas, 1890s.

Dr. Alonzo E. Quinn (left) and stonemasons, Grandview, 1890s. June Crane Collection (S-89-12-1)

For a time the area now called Carroll County was the hunting grounds for the Osage. But they were forced out as white settlement in the East began pushing other Native American groups west. In 1838 about 16,000 Native Americans were forcibly removed from their ancestral homes, moving through Arkansas to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) along the “Trail of Tears.” Some 1,200 Cherokees and enslaved people followed the Benge Route through Carroll County, from Osage and Carrollton in the east down to Huntsville (Madison County) and beyond.

Carroll County was formed in 1833. It was named for Charles Carroll of Maryland, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. The county’s boundaries changed frequently in its early years. Created from Izard County, land was added or taken from Madison, Searcy, Newton, and Boone counties.

Early settlers built log homes, farmed the land, established communities, and organized churches, schools, businesses, and governmental agencies. Some settlers brought enslaved people to work for them, but these African Americans were only a fraction of the county’s population. Still, families and neighbors split their loyalties during the Civil War over the issues of slavery and states’ rights. While no major battles were fought in Carroll County, skirmishes and lawless bushwhackers caused much harm.

20th-Century Growth
Poultry processing plant, Berryville or Green Forest, Arkansas, 1960s-1970s.

Poultry processing plant, Berryville or Green Forest, 1960s-1970s. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-86-211-46)

The railroad was a driving force in determining whether a town prospered or faded. When Alpena Pass was created along the Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad in 1900, Carrollton merchants moved their businesses and buildings to the new town. The railroad allowed markets to grow. Farmers grew fruit and vegetables to take advantage of the many canneries springing up, while sawmill operators turned trees into such materials as lumber, railroad ties, and barrel staves. Eureka Springs faded as medical practices evolved and the railroad moved its jobs to Boone County.

Carroll County wasn’t wealthy in the early part of the 20th century, so its largely rural, self-sustaining residents were better prepared to weather the economic woes of the Great Depression. Federally sponsored New Deal projects helped employ citizens in the 1930s. Workers built a gymnasium for Berryville, a water tower for Green Forest, an elementary school for Osage, and the Lake Leatherwood Park complex for Eureka. The Rural Electrification Act of 1936 provided federal loans to install electrical distribution systems. In 1938 Carroll Electric Cooperative of Berryville began constructing power lines, bringing power to many. Today their lines stretch across Northwest Arkansas and Southeast Missouri.

During World War II residents left to serve in the armed forces or work in war-related industries. But several factors led to later growth in population and economic opportunities. Large-scale chicken and turkey farming began in the 1950s when Berryville businessmen formed Carroll County Food Products. After Tyson Foods purchased the plant in the early 1970s, the county saw an influx of Latino residents. The construction of Table Rock and Beaver Lakes to the north and west brought tourism and encouraged the growth of family-style attractions such as Dinosaur World and the Great Passion Play. Eureka rebounded as a tourist destination, especially after incoming artists and others reopened long-shuttered downtown shops in the 1970s.

“The tomato industry of Carroll county ranks along with that of dairying, cattle and poultry. …The plants come into bearing about the middle of July and bear up to the middle of October, giving employment on the farm and at the canning plants at a time when most of the farm work is out of the way.”
Berryville Arkansas promotional booklet, mid-late 1930s

21st-Century Future
Beaver Dam, Carroll County, Arkansas, May 2017.

Beaver Dam, May 2017.

Today there are nearly 28,000 residents, with Berryville, Eureka Springs, and Green Forest as the county’s largest towns. Folks in Berryville and Eureka are often seen as different from one another, by outsiders and by themselves. Eurekans have a higher per-capita income than folks in Berryville, lean liberal in their politics, and look to tourism and the arts for their economy and identity. Industry is the major economic force in Berryville, politics are more conservative, and the population is twice the size of its western neighbor. With its poultry-processing plants, Tyson Foods is the largest employer in Berryville and Green Forest. Both towns have sizable, foreign-born populations.

The Carroll County Collaborative is a nonpolitical group made up of governmental, private, public, and nonprofit entities and organizations. It works to improve life for county residents and provide greater opportunities. Some of its priorities include affordable housing, new business development, conversion charter schools, and workforce development through such means as academies, incubator and apprentice programs, and a culinary institute. The Collaborative believes the county is “poised to be the next NATURAL growth area in Northwest Arkansas.”

“The Kings River divides Carroll County, and that’s where Woodstock and livestock meet.”

State Representative Bryan King of Green Forest
Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, September 19, 2010

“The nice thing about being in Berryville is you can drive ten miles west [to Eureka Springs] and it’s like you’re in a different country. You have restaurants. You have entertainment. Then you can go back home to the real world.”

Berryville Mayor Tim McKinney
Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, September 19, 2010

Carroll County Close-Ups

Civil War
Civil War veterans’ reunion, Basin Spring Park, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, circa 1900.

Civil War veterans’ reunion, Basin Spring Park, Eureka Springs, circa 1900. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-45)

Arkansas seceded from the Union in 1861. Soon, Confederate and Union troops formed, pitting neighbors and family members against one another. While no major battles were fought in the county, there were several skirmishes and much guerilla activity. A group of lawless bushwhackers strung “old and feeble” Lige Massingale over a tree limb and burned his feet to get him to tell of hidden valuables. Having no luck, they set fire to his house. One legend tells how a small band of Confederates were able to capture a larger group of Union soldiers at Hog Scald Hollow by tricking them into getting drunk on corn whiskey. The soldiers seized a wagon as it was driven by their camp and discovered the liquor that had been hidden (on purpose) under the hay.

The upland counties of northern Arkansas had fewer enslaved workers than the rest of the state, owing to the hilly terrain which made plantation-style agriculture impractical. In 1860 the county’s population was just over 9,000 residents, 330 of whom where slaves. While their labor contributed to the economy, it was not a major factor. Perhaps this helps explain, in part, the formation of several Peace Societies along the state’s northern border, including one in Carroll County. While members of the societies opposed the Confederacy, they generally didn’t work against it, often preferring peaceful dissent and home protection to active conflict.

“Alsie [Holland] gathered up a heap of stones…they heard the tramp of horses’ hoofs and the renegades arrived. They came blustering in and demanded food, money and anything of value… One ruffian noticed the pile of stones on the hearth and asked what they were there for; aunt Alsie replied ‘those are secesh [secessionist] biscuits; have one’ she then proceeded to pounce the rocks on the fellow…”

Nora L. Davis Standlee
Carroll County Historical Quarterly, June 1957

Tornadoes
Tornado-damaged home, Green Forest, Arkansas, March 1927.

Tornado-damaged home, Green Forest, March 1927. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-85-14-21)

Carroll County has endured several destructive and deadly tornadoes. In 1927 nineteen people were killed and one hundred injured in Green Forest as a storm damaged the business district and destroyed about fifty homes, wrecking many more. A train car of doctors and nurses came from Harrison to help the injured, taking many to the Eureka Springs Hospital. Ten years later, Green Forest was struck again along with nearby Alpena Pass, with one person dead and twenty injured.

The worst tornado in county history struck Berryville at 10:30 p.m. on October 29, 1942. Right before the storm hit the power went out. As the Wyrick family hid under a mattress, they felt no motion as the storm picked up their house and moved it several feet. At the railroad station the tornado knocked over fifty-ton railroad cars and wrenched a baby out of its mother’s arms, badly hurting the mother and killing the child. Several businesses were demolished, including wholesale grocery houses and canneries, part of the economic lifeblood of the community. Rescuers searched for victims “by torch, flashlight, lanterns, candles, or even matches.” In all, twenty-nine people were killed, with sixty-eight seriously injured. The devastation made national news.

“They’re laying the dead out on the lawns as fast as they can get there out of the wreckage and we’re making regular trips picking up the bodies. Most of them are so badly mutilated that we can’t hope to identify them until relatives start coming in.”

Rex Nelson, undertaker
Northwest Arkansas Times, October 30, 1942

 

County Seats
Carroll County Courthouse—Eastern Judicial District, Berryville, Arkansas, about 1905.

Carroll County Courthouse—Eastern Judicial District, Berryville, about 1905. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-148)

Carroll County Courthouse—Eastern Judicial District, Berryville, about 1905. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-148)The first seat of government was in Carrollton which, by the mid-1800s, was a large, centrally located, thriving settlement. But when Carroll County land was taken to form Boone County in 1869, Carrollton found itself on the border. A “courthouse war” erupted, pitting Carrollton against Berryville to the northwest. Petitions, elections, lawsuits, and countersuits followed as the two towns struggled for the courthouse and the prestige and revenue it would bring. In 1875, by a narrow margin of twenty-eight votes, the county seat was moved to Berryville.


Carroll County Courthouse—Western Judicial District, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, circa 1910.

Carroll County Courthouse—Western Judicial District, Eureka Springs, circa 1910. Siloam Springs Museum Collection (S-83-300-72)

Across the Kings River was the new boomtown of Eureka Springs. Its residents wanted the convenience of their own courthouse, in part to avoid impassable roads due to the frequent flooding of the Kings River. In 1883 they successfully petitioned the Arkansas Legislature to form two judicial districts with the Kings River as the dividing line. By the late 1880s Green Forest challenged Berryville for its courthouse, saying the building was unsuitable and in disrepair. The votes were tallied and Berryville kept its courthouse (later moving to a modern facility in 1976). The most recent dispute occurred in 2010 when a circuit court judge, a native of Berryville, ruled to consolidate the two judicial districts into one at Berryville. He was unsuccessful. Today the former Berryville courthouse is home to the Carroll County Heritage Center while the old Eureka Springs courthouse is home to the county clerk’s office and city offices.

“I have seen thousands of Texas Longhorn steers pass through town [in front of the courthouse] in droves nearly every week in the year, as well as horses, sheep, goats and one time there was a herd of 500 turkeys…some of the merchants didn’t like the flies the stock drew, especially in warm weather.”
D. Elmer Jones, 1957
Carroll County Historical Quarterly, December 1966

Railroads
The first St. Louis & North Arkansas train pulling into Berryville, April 15, 1901.

The first St. Louis & North Arkansas train pulling into Berryville, April 15, 1901. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-81)

In order to continue the success of Eureka Springs, a railroad was needed to bring health- and pleasure-seekers. Former Arkansas governor Powell Clayton spearheaded a project to connect with the St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad eighteen miles north. In 1883 the Eureka Springs Railway steamed into town. Together the two railroads built and operated the magnificent Crescent Hotel. But the Eureka railroad began to lose money as the fad of “taking the waters” began to wane. It was purchased by the St. Louis & North Arkansas Railroad in 1900, which began expanding the line west. Berryville and Green Forest each offered a bonus to bring the railroad to their towns but the terrain was too difficult and therefore too costly. But Berryville persevered. Residents gave the railroad money, right-of-way, and materials to build a spur line to town. In 1901 residents greeted the train with flower-decorated carriages.

A few years later the new railroad was failing and the line switched hands again. In 1906 it became the Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad (M&NA), followed by the Missouri & Arkansas Railway in 1935 and the Arkansas and Ozarks Railway in 1949. While the railroads had some successful years, there were many problems. The line was abandoned in 1961. In recent years the county has been home to two short, standard-gauge tourist railroads. The Eureka Springs Railroad operated out of Beaver for a time in the 1970s and early 1980s, but didn’t prove successful. The Eureka Springs & North Arkansas Railway, begun in 1981, operates out of the historic 1913 M&NA depot.

“Eureka Springs and Green Forest turned out in masses to help Berryville celebrate the arrival of the first train within her borders and rejoices with her in her good fortune. There is a popular superstition that these towns are jealous of each other, but no suspicion of such a situation showed up on this wonderful day…”
Berryville Progress, June 1901

Education
Clarke’s Academy, Berryville, Arkansas, 1913.

Clarke’s Academy, Berryville, 1913.
Pennington, photographer. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-85-18-18)

Eureka Springs had several small schools in its early years, including one for the children of African-American servants of wealthy vacationers. By the 1900s there were many small public school districts throughout the county, some with fanciful names like Blue Eye, Welcome Home, Grassy Nob, Parrott, Bobo, Gobbler, Snow, Possum Trot, and Hottentott. When Mabel Cripps Wilson began her teaching career in 1923 in the White Oak community, students walked one or two miles to school, brought their lunches in Karo syrup buckets, and went without shoes until the weather turned cold. These rural, one-room schools faded as communities dwindled and schools were consolidated in 1965. Today’s schools are in Eureka, Berryville, and Green Forest.

“Parents and guardians, confiding their children and wards in our care, may rest assured no effort will be spared to secure the development of mental powers and the lasting influences of moral principles upon the mind.”
Isaac A. Clarke
Clarke’s Academy for Males and Females, August 15, 1879

Sports and Recreation
Basketball team, Green Forest, Arkansas, 1916

Basketball team, Green Forest, 1916. From left: Hattie Belle, Ruth, Ethel, Eloda, Rhea, Hazel, and Augusta. James and Sue Eldridge Collection (S-96-2-940)

The Saunders Memorial Muzzleloading Shoot began in 1954 in honor of Colonel C. Burton “Buck” Saunders, a longtime Berryville resident who was a skillful marksman and collector of unique firearms. Activities at Luther Owen’s Muzzle Loading Park include firearm matches, camping, and the sale of black-powder merchandise. In 1930 Albert Ingalls, Eureka Springs mayor and president of Crescent College, wanted a basketball team for the girls’ school. Hearing about a winning team in Sparkman, Arkansas (southeast of Hot Springs), he sent his wife Leila to recruit the girls. The Crescent Comets practiced in the basement of the city auditorium, running the distance from the Crescent Hotel and back. The team won two national championships.

“We loved it… And even though the school was for rich girls, our team [the Crescent Comets] was accepted with kindness from the regular students. …We got to dance in the lobby with all the other girls and we looked just as nice. Mrs. Ingalls saw to it. Before the college’s first formal, she bought each member of our team a formal gown from a fancy dress shop in Springfield [Missouri] so we could go and feel like we fit in.”
Mabel Blakely Williams
1886 Crescent Hotel & Spa website, posted September 29, 2012

Health
Health seekers by spring, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, circa 1881

Health seekers by spring, Eureka Springs, about 1881. F. F. Fyler, photographer. Eureka Springs Carnegie Public Library Collection (S-83-325-39)

Carroll County’s first doctor may have been Arthur A. Baker, a blacksmith who taught himself medicine by reading books. Working first out of Carrollton and later Berryville, he traveled many miles by horseback to treat neighbors in need. In 1879 Dr. Alvah Jackson treated a patient suffering from severe skin disease using water from a healing spring. His miracle cure at Basin Spring led to a massive influx of health-seekers and entrepreneurs into what would become Eureka Springs. More springs were discovered, their mineral content tested, and their curative powers touted. Eureka went from a campsite to a town of nearly 4,000 in the space of one year. Entrepreneurs built fancy hotels, bathhouses, and sanitariums to treat the infirm. The springs were said to cure a host of illnesses including rheumatism, catarrh (inflammation of mucus membranes), tuberculosis, hay fever, diabetes, dyspepsia (indigestion), asthma, jaundice, malaria, paralysis, neuralgia (intense nerve pain), gout, cancer, dropsy (excess fluid in tissues or body cavities), and “female troubles.”

Frances Kerens felt that Eureka’s Catholic community needed a religious order to “help solve the problems of those in need of spiritual replenishing.” In 1900 land was purchased for the Hotel Dieu Hospital. Run by the Sisters of Mercy Motherhouse in St. Louis, the facility included a convent, school, chapel, surgical wing, and twenty-five-bed hospital. Financial problems led to its closure in 1913. An infamous chapter in Eureka’s medical history began in 1937 when Norman Baker purchased the shuttered Crescent Hotel to open a cancer hospital. A long-time quack who made millions by swindling the ill with bogus cancer treatments, he was finally sent to jail in 1940.

Other early hospitals include the Don Sawyer Memorial Hospital (now the Eureka Springs Hospital) and the Gentry Hospital in Berryville. In the 1930s and early 1940s, Vera Gentry was a midwife who ran a hospital in her home, welcoming about 300 babies into the world. Doctors used her hospital to perform tonsillectomies and appendectomies. Gentry’s hospital closed when Dr. Parker and Dr. Carter’s eleven-bed hospital opened in town, which in turn closed in 1969, shortly before the opening of Carroll General Hospital (now Mercy Hospital Berryville). Money for the facility came from a county tax and a grant. In 2016 the hospital caused some concern when it ended several services, including emergency ambulance, home health, and hospice.

The rise of Eureka as a spa town coincided with the end of the nation’s interest in “taking the waters.” Many factors contributed to bring this about including major advancements in science, improvements in the standards of medical care, and the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. By the 1910s the grand Crescent Hotel had closed its doors and fewer health-seekers came to town. As Eureka transformed into a tourist town, interest in saving the springs grew. Preservationists restored several springs and their protective structures. Today they are open to the public, although they bear signs warning folks against drinking contaminated water.

“People who have been bedridden sufferers for years come here, drink the waters, and get well, often in a very incredibly short time… Ladies who have languished for years in their terrible mind-wrecking and body-destroying ills arrive here and in a few months at the furthest, are seen with the bloom of health upon their cheeks and rejoicing in restored womanhood.”
Eureka Springs Daily Democrat, December 17, 1891

Natural Resources
A. L. Hanby’s steam-powered sawmill, Winona, Arkansas, 1890s-1900s.

A. L. Hanby’s steam-powered sawmill, Winona, 1890s-1900s. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-186)

When settlers first came to Carroll County they found abundant natural resources—timber and stone to build with, animal pelts to trade for cash and goods, and plentiful game and fish to eat. One story tells of two women from the Beaver community who, having lost food and livestock to Civil War bushwhackers, were desperate to feed their families. They killed a number of deer by herding them into the woods and flapping their aprons to drive the deer off a high bluff to their death. In recent years the deer population in Eureka Springs had grown so large that, after much opposition, an urban deer hunt was organized in 2013 for bowhunters.

Some of the earliest sawmills were located on the Dry Fork Creek in 1840s. In the days when land could be claimed from the federal government by “improving” and using it, Franzisca Massman of the fast-growing town of Eureka stayed one step ahead of the law. She would find a choice spot (even if it had already been claimed by someone else), erect a cabin, move in a few furnishings, cook a meal, and plow a patch of ground. Once the usable timber had been cut she moved to a new claim. By the 1900s an expanding railroad allowed sawmills to ship lumber, barrel staves, and railroad ties throughout the region. Sawmill operations continued well into the 20th century, with operators producing oak flooring, shipping pallets, and pine posts treated with creosote.

Rumors of vast oil fields in Northwest Arkansas led to the Sure Pop oil well in Eureka in 1921. Promoted by a Texas driller who promised great wealth, business leaders raised $10,000 to buy land. A derrick was built, oil leases were sold, a barbecue was held for 2,500, and newspapers told of the progress at the well site. But the well was never drilled and the Texas promoter left town after the derrick burned down mysteriously. Sure Pop shareholders with left with worthless leases.

The Crescent Hotel and other buildings in Eureka were built using high-quality, local limestone. The Eureka Stone Company, founded in 1904, used the railroad to ship its product throughout the region. When building projects grew scarce, the company fell dormant. In the late 1970s stonemason Don Underwood bought modern equipment and reopened the quarry. Today the company supplies stone for commercial and residential projects throughout Northwest Arkansas and the region. It also takes on restoration projects of some of Eureka’s old buildings and walkways.

“…Ab [Hanby] inherited a disposition to work…he acquired the habit of greasing his muscles with brains, so to speak, and as a result he has sawed more lumber for homes in the Eastern District of Carroll County than any other three men who have been engaged in the lumber business here. He has in time owned no less than forty different mills, having a dozen or more in operation at one time.”
Green Forest Tribune, December 19, 1913

Agriculture
Cans stacked outside the Hays Canning Company, Oak Grove, Arkansas, 1910s.

Cans stacked outside the Hays Canning Company, Oak Grove, 1910s. Larry Parmlee Collection (S-85-5-29)

By 1913 there were large-scale canneries at Berryville, Urbanette, and Green Forest, with the latter shipping 8,000 cases of apples, 6,000 cases of tomatoes, and 6,000 cases of peaches that year. Wheat was an important crop and kept the flour mills in Green Forest, Urbanette, Yocum, and Berryville grinding away. Flour was shipped regionally and even overseas during World War I. By the 1920s the boom-and-bust cycle of crops forced farmers to diversify. Tomatoes were grown in the 1930s, supplying around thirty canneries before the industry declined from disease and the “labor-intensive nature of the tomato business.”

Dairy herds became big business for a time. In the early 1930s the Berryville Cheese Factory operated out of the basement of a hardware store. Later a large stone building was purchased where cans of milk were brought, pasteurized, and made into cheese. Kraft Foods purchased the business in 1946 and modernized the plant, offering high-paying jobs to local workers. The plant closed in 1985, in part due to improvements made to Kraft’s Benton County facility.

While Eureka Springs’ economy shifted from healing springs to tourism over the years, agriculture-related businesses continue to be a mainstay in the rest of the county. In the 1960s Green Forest was home to two of the state’s thirty beekeepers who rented their hives to commercial fruit growers for crop pollination. Three Berryville businessmen started Carroll County Food Products in 1951, processing chickens and turkeys. By 1971 the plant was owned by Tyson Foods. Today Tyson employs nearly 3,000 county residents in several poultry-related businesses, including processing plants in Berryville and Green Forest, making for an annual payroll of $138 million. Tyson, Walmart, Carroll Electric Cooperative Corporation, and Mercy Hospital are the county’s largest employers.

“…the short nutritious grasses have proved to not only contain sufficient nourishment to sustain the life of large herds of cattle, but to actually fatten them during the winter months, and it is an actual fact that thousands of cattle and hogs are bred, born, and raised on the large areas of free range, brought to town, and shipped to market without ever seeing a grain of corn in their lives.”
Oak Leaves, 1914

Diversity
African Episcopal- Methodist Church members at Harding Spring, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, late 1910s.

African Episcopal- Methodist Church members at Harding Spring, Eureka Springs, late 1910s. Harding was the only spring open to African Americans. Eureka Springs Historical Museum Collection (S-99-66-359)

Carroll County’s African American population has always been small in comparison to its white population. In 1860 there were a little over 9,000 residents, 330 of whom were enslaved workers. After the Civil War only thirty-seven former slaves stayed in the area. But the new boomtown of Eureka Springs offered economic opportunities. Blacks owned boarding houses and worked in bathhouses, hotels, laundries, and barbershops. They improved their community by building homes, establishing a school, and organizing an African Methodist-Episcopal Church. But they were segregated from the white community—limited by where they could live, work, shop, and spend leisure time. As the health resort faded in the early 1900s, many moved away.

Berryville was considered a “sundown town.” It’s said that signs were still posted in the 1950s warning blacks not to stay past nightfall. Today the county is largely white, with a few folks self-identifying as African American, Native American, Asian, and Pacific Islander. There is a sizable Latino population, many of whom work in the poultry industry.

“Uncle Dick Fancher…was buried in the colored people’s cemetery [in Eureka Springs]… He was sold as a slave at auction here in Berryville when he was but ten years old and was bought…for $400 [in 1848].”
Benton County Democrat, May 11, 1911

Back to the Land
“First Dance” at the Ozark Mountain Folkfair, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, May 1973.

“First Dance” at the Ozark Mountain Folkfair, Eureka Springs, May 1973. A singer with the Lewis Family (center) dances with a Folkfair staff member. Albert Skiles, photographer. Courtesy Albert Skiles.

In the 1970s Northwest Arkansas saw an influx of young adults seeking a simpler, more meaningful life. Edd Jeffords of Eureka Springs published the Ozark Access Catalog, with tips about buying land and planning a garden. He told newcomers to work hard and “learn about the lives and customs of the people they were living beside.” Over twenty folks lived in the Lothlorien commune near Berryville. They helped their neighbors with farm chores and paid their electric bills by working as waitresses, artisans, and the like. In 1973 Jeffords helped put together the Ozark Mountain Folkfair, a three-day event featuring such musicians as John Lee Hooker and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band. Thousands of youngsters braved heavy rain, mud, and ticks to attend.

Some folks accepted and helped the newcomers while others saw them as immoral hippies and drug addicts who took advantage of the welfare system. In 1972 the Eureka Springs Times-Echo warned of a “well-oiled plot” by the “longhairs” to take over city government. Back-to-the-landers moved into Eureka’s vacant storefronts, selling such things as health food, handmade leather items, and even a “Christ of the Ozarks marijuana cigarette clip.” While some moved away in the 1980s, others stayed and became teachers, artists, and city-council members. Richard Schoeninger, who came to Eureka to edit an underground newspaper, served as mayor in the late 1980s. He jokingly reported two problems with his job—following rules and wearing underwear.

“In not voting, you gave up your right to vote for someone else—who, for all you know, was a Communist, an extremist of one sort or another, or a hippie who has added nothing to the community…”
Dick Fisher, editor, Eureka Springs Times-Echo
Arkansas Gazette, June 25, 1972

“The polite woman who waits on you in any café may likely as not be ‘an extremist of one sort or another’ during her free time. People here are employed making looms, rewiring houses…dishwashing…teaching horseback riding… We certainly haven’t hurt the town economically.”
Maren Statts
Arkansas Gazette, June 25, 1972

Early Settlers
Sneed Cemetery, Osage, Arkansas, mid-late 1900s..

Sneed Cemetery, Osage, mid-late 20th century. Saunders Memorial Museum Collection (S-86-211-74)

The first settlers were Native Americans, having moved west from their ancestral homes ahead of white migration. White chroniclers made mention of Delaware Indians on Long Creek, small bands of Shawnee near what is now Alpena, and a Cherokee settlement north of what is now Berryville. Some of these early residents married the white settlers who came from Tennessee and Kentucky primarily. Around 1820 William Sneed of Kentucky traveled to the Ozarks with his wife, children, and enslaved workers. But, before moving, he surveyed the available land, made his choice, and planted several acres of corn. Making “improvements” by clearing fields, planting crops, and building homes was an important first step when claiming land from the government. In 1830 Sneed and his son, Charles, claimed several thousand acres of the best farmland in Osage Township. Their slaves helped build the Dubuque Road—the first road in the county—from Lead Hill through Carrollton and beyond. Charles served as Carrollton’s first postmaster and as county sheriff. Early court cases were held in the Sneed home.

Some of the first businesses were grist mills, tanneries (to prepare leather), blacksmith shops, and trading posts for things the settlers couldn’t make or grow themselves. Tilford Denton and his brother moved to the county seat of Carrollton in 1837 and set up shop as merchants. One year later their merchandise was valued at $2,800. Some settlers stayed for a short while before moving on. In 1857 Captain Alexander Fancher of Osage led family members and others on a wagon train headed for new opportunities in California. When they stopped at Mountain Meadows, a valley in the Utah Territory, most were attacked and killed by Mormons and Native Americans. The reason for the massacre has been hotly debated since then.

Religion
Baptism at the White River, possibly the Mundell community, Carroll County, Arkansas, circa 1915.

Baptism at the White River, possibly the Mundell Community, about 1915. Eureka Springs Historical Museum Collection (S-99-66-379)

Most early Carroll County settlers were Baptist or Methodist. A Union Baptist church was organized at Joel Plumlee’s Green Forest home in 1838. Services were held once a month, from Saturday morning to Sunday night. There was preaching, Holy Communion, foot washing (a ritual of humility), and river baptisms. Eureka Springs’ fast-growing and diverse population brought new denominations.

Founded in 1882, St. Elizabeth Catholic Church moved into an impressive limestone building in 1909, complete with Italian mosaic floors and marble altars. Christian Science was introduced in the late 1880s by Lou Aldrich. Finding no relief from Eureka’s waters, she used prayer to treat her illness. She went on to become a healer herself, only to face legal action for “practicing healing without a medical license.” The case was dismissed after her attorney asked those healed by the new religion to stand (most stood) and then asked the same for those healed by doctors (nobody stood).

Today there is a wide variety of denominations in the county—Lutheran, Presbyterian, Pentecostal, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Unitarian—even Native American. In Green Forest there are two Spanish-language Southern Baptist churches for the local Latino population. The Rock Springs Baptist Church near Berryville may be the oldest still-active church in the county. It was founded in the early 1850s by Dr. Alvah Jackson, discoverer of Eureka’s famous Basin Spring. But as congregations dwindle, country churches face uncertain futures. Recently the Historic Preservation Alliance of Arkansas put the 1895 Possum Trot Church near Osage on its “Six to Save” list.

“We didn’t have a college education, but we did have a lot of kneeology. You get down on your knees and pray to God for knowledge and understanding.”
Anita Hudson, speaking about Possum Trot Church
Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, June 8, 2009

Carroll County Communities Photo Gallery

Credits

“28 Known Dead in Berryville Storm.” Northwest Arkansas Times, 10-30-1942.

“35th Annual Ozark Folk Festival.” Unknown Eureka Springs newspaper, October 1982.

1927, 1937 killer tornadoes struck Green Forest.” Marilyn Breece, Boone County Historical & Railroad Society, Inc., 8-4-2006.  (accessed 9/2016)

A Fame Not Easily Forgotten: An Autobiography of Eureka Springs. June Westphal & Catharine Osterage, Litho Printers & Bindery: Carthage, Missouri, 2010.

A Pictorial History of Carroll County, Arkansas. Carroll County Newspapers, Inc., Heritage House Publishing Company, Inc.: Marceline, MO, about 1990.

“A Slave Called Mariah.” Shirley H. Pyron, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LV, No. 2 (June 2010).

“Abolish old law entirely, JP says.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 2-24-2011.

About the Festival.” Original Ozark Folk Festival.  (accessed 10/2016)

“An Important ‘Rental’ Item: The Honeybee!” Ernie Deane, Arkansas Gazette, 5-26-1968.

“An Ozarks Original: Eureka Springs, Arkansas, is a town at odds with the ordinary.” Crescent Dragonwagon, Discovery, Summer 1987.

“An Economic Analysis of Carroll County in Northwest Arkansas.” Center for Business and Economic Research, Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas, 8-30-2002.  (accessed 9/2016)

An Outlander’s History of Carroll County, Arkansas. Jim Lair & O. Klute Braswell, Walsworth Publishing Co, Inc.: Marceline, Missouri, 1983.

Arkansas Peace Society.” Guy Lancaster, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture.  (accessed 9/2016)

“Around Town.” Virginia Tyler, Eureka Springs Times-Echo, 11-11-1982.

“Back to the Land, Again: Eureka-area commune members return for reunion.” Jennifer Jackson, Lovely County Citizen, 5-29-2014.

“Beaver woman recalls start of Holiday Island,” Kathryn Lucariello, Carroll County News, 11-27-2012.

Berryville.” Cindy Williams, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 9/2016)

“Berryville Kraft Cheese Plant.” David Motherwell, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LLI, No. 4 (December 2007).

“Berryville Suffers Tornado.” Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Autumn 1993).

Boone County and Its People. Ralph R. Rea, Van Buren, Arkansas: Press-Argus, 1955.

“Bowhunting inside town culls 12 deer.” Bill Bowden, Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 3-3-2013.

Building Northwest Arkansas.” Shiloh Museum of Ozark History. (accessed 10/2016)

“Canning, Refrigerator Cars, and Fresh Produce.” Oak Leaves, Spring 1990.

Carroll County.” C. J. Miller, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 9/2016)

Carroll County, Arkansas.” Community & Conflict: The Impact of the Civil War in the Ozarks. (accessed 9/2016)

Carroll County, Arkansas: History and Reminiscences. Mary Louise Chittendon, editor. Carroll County Historical Society: Berryville, Arkansas, 2005.

“Carroll County, Arkansas: Its Land and Its People” (a reprint of a 1914 publication of Oak Leaves), unknown newspaper clipping, 8/1979.

Carroll County Churches.” ShareFaith. (accessed 10/2016)

Carroll County Collaborative.” Eureka Springs: Mayor’s Task Force on Economic Development, Greater Eureka Springs Chamber of Commerce. (accessed 10/2016)

“Carroll County schools: History, events retold.” Sylvia Jamison, Eureka Springs Times-Echo, 8-9-1985.

“Carroll County’s Leading Cannery at Green Forest.” Oak Leaves, Spring 1990.

“Carroll Electric Cooperative a Mighty Force in Development of Arkansas Ozarks,” Ozark Mountaineer, September 1956

Carrollton” Mike Polston, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture.  (accessed 9/2016)

Cherokee.” Leslie Stewart-Abernathy, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

“Christ of Ozarks dark after 45 years.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 12-10-2012.

Church Directory.Carroll County News. (accessed 10/2016)

“Civil War cave in heart of city to get a facelift.” Sheilah Downey, Carroll County News, 6-17-1993.

“Civil War surrounded area with historical events.” Jim Fletcher, Carroll County News, 11/1992.

Clarke’s Academy for Males and Females broadsheet. Berryville, 8-15-1879. (Clarke’s Academy research file, Shiloh Museum)

“Crescent College and Conservatory.” Jenny Vego, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

“Dr. A.E. Quinn.” unattributed and undated article. (Quinn research file, Shiloh Museum)

“Early Sawmills of Carroll County.” Evelyn Johnson, Carroll County Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. XXIV, No. 1 (Spring 1979).

“Eccentricity At an Old Spa In the Ozarks.” Edward Harper, New York Times, 5-28-1989.

“ES looking to the future.” Jon Parham, Carroll County News, March 1995.

ES&NA Railway.”  (accessed 10/2016)

Eureka Springs (Carroll County).” Bethany May, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Eureka Springs: City of Healing Waters. June Westphal & Kate Cooper, The History Press: Charleston, South Carolina, 2012.

“Eureka Springs Eternal: New Orleans Meets Switzerland In The Ozarks.” Bill Bowden, Spectrum, February 14, 1989.

“Eureka Springs in Black and White: The Lost History of an African-American Neighborhood.” Jacqueline Froelich, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Vol. LVI, No. 2 (Summer 1997).

Eureka Springs Pictorial History. Eureka Springs Carnegie Public Library Association, Eureka Springs Times-Echo, 1975.

“Eureka Springs: The portrait of a town hibernating for winter.” Jerry Dean, Arkansas Gazette, 1-31-1989.

Eureka Stone Company. (accessed 9/2016)

“Evolution of the Berryville Court Square Park.” O. Klute Braswell, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. XI, No. 4 (December 1966).

“Flags proposal raises a flap.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 11-24-2013.

“Gathering ‘Possums in the Ozarks.” Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LIII, No. 4 (December 2008).

Gerald Lyman Kenneth Smith (1898-1976).” Glen Jeansonne & Michael Gauger, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 9/2016)

Green Forest (Carroll County).” Steven Teske, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Healing Waters.” Shiloh Museum of Ozark History. (accessed 9/2016)

“Hipbillies and Hillbillies: Back-to-the-Landers in the Arkansas Ozarks during the 1970s.” Jared M. Phillips, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Vol. LXXV, No. 2 (Summer 2016).

History.” St. Elizabeth of Hungary Catholic Church.  (accessed 10/2016)

History of Carroll County Arkansas. (Reprinted in part from The Goodspeed Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Northwestern Arkansas and A Reminiscent History of the Ozark Region, 1889 & 1892, respectively), Mary Louise Chittendon, editor, Carroll County Historical Society: Berryville, Arkansas, 2005.

The History and Families of Carroll County, Arkansas. Carroll County Historical and Genealogical Society, Turner Publishing Co.: Paducah, Tennessee, 2003.

Hog Scald.” John Jennings, The History of Hogscald.  (accessed 9/2016)

“Holiday Islands enjoys rich history and bright future,” David Frank Dempsy, Eureka Springs Echo, March 1996

“Limestone part of Eureka Springs’ past and present,” Vernon Tucker, Flashlight, September 1983.

“‘Little Switzerland’ focus of clash between old, new,” Ed Housewright, Arkansas Gazette, 7-20-1986.

“Longhairs, Sacred Projects Reviving Eureka Springs, Ginger Shiras, Arkansas Gazette, 6-25-1972.

“Looking for the Center of the Universe: Edd Jeffords and Ozark In-migration,” Mike Luster, unpublished manuscript, Shiloh Museum research files. 

“Many responsible for hospital,” Karen Maierhofer, Carroll County News(?) (Carroll General Hospital Edition), 10/1984.

Mercy-BV administrator points to positives.” Scott Loftis, Carroll County News, 7-12-2016. (accessed 10/2016)

Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad (M&NA).” H. Glenn Mosenthin, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Mountain Meadows Massacre.” James Finck, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture.  (accessed 10/2016)

“New Life for the Stair-Step Town,” Dickson Terry, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8-31-1958.

Norman Baker (1882-1958).” Michael B. Dougan, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

“Old Carrollton.” Boyd W. Johnson, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3 (March 1957).

Osage.” George Sabo III, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Other Days at Eureka Springs. Nellie A. Mills, 1950.

Ozark Mountain Folkfair program, 1973. Posted by Bob Treat on Flickr.(accessed 10/2016)

Ozark Mountain Folk Fair.” April Griffith, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Ozark Mountain Folk Fair: History in Our Backyard.” April Griffith, The Back-Stay (Shiloh Museum), 6-7-2013. (accessed 10/2016)

“Passion Play cuts schedule, makes money.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 8-23-2013.

“Play Ball! A Little History of Baseball in Carroll County.” June Westphal & Vineta Wingate, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LVI, No. 3 (September 2011).

Quick Facts, Carroll County, Arkansas.” United States Census Bureau. (accessed 9/2016)

“Ready, aim, fire Saunders Memorial Shoot sets sights on this weekend.” Kelby Newcomb, Carroll County News, 9-21-2016.

Renowned Crescent Comet Mabel Williams.” 1886 Crescent Hotel & Spa, posted 9-29-2012. (accessed 10/2016).

“Resort Community Marks First Anniversary.” Holiday Island Sun, August 1971.

“River, politics, culture divide Carroll County.” Bill Bowden, Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 9-19-2010.

Rock Springs Missionary Baptist Church. unknown author, 1956. (Rock Springs Southern Baptist Church research file, Shiloh Museum)

“Same-sex marriage licensing starts, stops.” Kristal Kuyendall, Lovely County Citizen, 5-15-2014.

Saunders Museum Turns 50.” E. Alan Long, Carroll County News, 6-13-2005. (accessed 10/2016)

“Settlement Across Northern Arkansas as Influenced by the Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad.” Lawrence R. Handley, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 (Winter 1974).

“Siblings trying to save old church.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 6-8-2009.

“Stories of the Civil War and Early Carroll County.” Nora L. Davis Standlee, Carroll County Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. III, No. 3 (6/1957).

“Tennis Affair in Jeopardy After 70 Yrs.” David McNeal, Carroll County News, 11-23-1989.

The Benge Detachment of Cherokees on the Trail of Tears.” Gloria Young, Northwest Arkansas Heritage Trail Partners.  (accessed 10/2016

“The best little history of the best county in Arkansas.” Mike Ellis, Carroll County News (Newcomer’s Guide), Summer 1998.

“The Hanbys: ‘Lumber Kings of Caroll County.'” Jim Lair, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. XXXI, No. 2 (Sumer 1985).

The History and Families of Carroll County, Arkansas. Carroll County Historical and Genealogical Society, Turner Publishing Co.: Paducah, KY, 2003.

“The Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad Comes to Berryville, Arkansas.” Lucile Russell Dodson, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. V, No. 1 (March 1960).

“The Stephen Foster of the Ozarks.” Carroll County Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. XXIV, No. 1 (Spring 1979).

“The Trail of Tears went through Carroll County.” David Motherwell, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LIII, No. 1 (March 2008).

“The way we were…” Lanny Gibson, unknown & undated newspaper clipping (likely Eureka Springs Times-Echo, Fall 1993)

“The whole town moved: Carrollton still on the map, despite Alpena,” Jim Fletcher, Green Forest Tribune, 8-11-1993.

“Toby, Absie and Fred Help Spice Up Folk Festival.” Ernie Dean, Arkansas Gazette, 10-21-1958.

Tornado Disaster In Arkansas. Pathe Newsreel (1942), GettyImages.  (accessed 9/2016)

“Tornado Hits Arkansas Town Killing 28 Persons.” Tuscaloosa [Alabama] News, 10-30-1942.

“Tourist town puts old strengths, new interests out front.” Kevin Kinder, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 2-10-2008.

“Two courthouses cause history of controversy.” Silvia Jamison, Eureka Springs Times-Echo, 5-9-1985.

Tyson Expansion: Poultry giant proposes $136M plant in Green Forest.” Scott Loftis, Carroll County News, 4-15-2016.  (accessed 9/2016)

Tyson Foods Proposes to Build Additional Plant in Arkansas.” Tyson Foods, 4-14-2016.  (accessed 12/2016)

“Union soldiers recognized a good thing.” Mike Ellis, Carroll County News, 9-1-1999.

Unpublished manuscript about Northwest Arkansas railroad history, Tom Duggan, Shiloh Museum research files, 2012-2014.

“Vera Gentry’s Hospital.” Shirley H. Pyron, Carroll County Historical Society, Vol. LVI, No. 1 (March 2011).

Welcome to Eureka Springs!” Greater Eureka Springs Chamber of Commerce. (accessed 9/2016)

“What about those new Ozark communes?” James Andrews, Memphis Commercial Appeal, circa 1974.

What’s in a Name? The History Behind Harmon Park.” Kechia Bentley More, River Valley Online, 9-1-2006.  (accessed 10/2016)

“When Bales of Cotton Rolled Through Town.” D. Elmer Jones, Carroll County Historical Society, Vol. III, No. 3 (9/1958)

“Which came first, Presbyterians or Baptists?” E. Alan Long, Carroll County News, 5-16-2003.

“White River residents accepted unusual Epsom salts deposit,” Billie Jines, Northwest Arkansas Morning News, 2-22-1987.

Working Together for Carroll County.” Eureka Springs: Mayor’s Task Force on Economic Development, Greater Eureka Springs Chamber of Commerce.  (accessed 10/2016)

Dr. Alonzo E. Quinn (left) and stonemasons, Grandview, Arkansas, 1890s.

Dr. Alonzo E. Quinn (left) and stonemasons, Grandview, 1890s. June Crane Collection (S-89-12-1)

For a time the area now called Carroll County was the hunting grounds for the Osage. But they were forced out as white settlement in the East began pushing other Native American groups west. In 1838 about 16,000 Native Americans were forcibly removed from their ancestral homes, moving through Arkansas to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) along the “Trail of Tears.” Some 1,200 Cherokees and enslaved people followed the Benge Route through Carroll County, from Osage and Carrollton in the east down to Huntsville (Madison County) and beyond.

Carroll County was formed in 1833. It was named for Charles Carroll of Maryland, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. The county’s boundaries changed frequently in its early years. Created from Izard County, land was added or taken from Madison, Searcy, Newton, and Boone counties.

Early settlers built log homes, farmed the land, established communities, and organized churches, schools, businesses, and governmental agencies. Some settlers brought enslaved people to work for them, but these African Americans were only a fraction of the county’s population. Still, families and neighbors split their loyalties during the Civil War over the issues of slavery and states’ rights. While no major battles were fought in Carroll County, skirmishes and lawless bushwhackers caused much harm.

20th-Century Growth
Poultry processing plant, Berryville or Green Forest, Arkansas, 1960s-1970s.

Poultry processing plant, Berryville or Green Forest, 1960s-1970s. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-86-211-46)

The railroad was a driving force in determining whether a town prospered or faded. When Alpena Pass was created along the Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad in 1900, Carrollton merchants moved their businesses and buildings to the new town. The railroad allowed markets to grow. Farmers grew fruit and vegetables to take advantage of the many canneries springing up, while sawmill operators turned trees into such materials as lumber, railroad ties, and barrel staves. Eureka Springs faded as medical practices evolved and the railroad moved its jobs to Boone County.

Carroll County wasn’t wealthy in the early part of the 20th century, so its largely rural, self-sustaining residents were better prepared to weather the economic woes of the Great Depression. Federally sponsored New Deal projects helped employ citizens in the 1930s. Workers built a gymnasium for Berryville, a water tower for Green Forest, an elementary school for Osage, and the Lake Leatherwood Park complex for Eureka. The Rural Electrification Act of 1936 provided federal loans to install electrical distribution systems. In 1938 Carroll Electric Cooperative of Berryville began constructing power lines, bringing power to many. Today their lines stretch across Northwest Arkansas and Southeast Missouri.

During World War II residents left to serve in the armed forces or work in war-related industries. But several factors led to later growth in population and economic opportunities. Large-scale chicken and turkey farming began in the 1950s when Berryville businessmen formed Carroll County Food Products. After Tyson Foods purchased the plant in the early 1970s, the county saw an influx of Latino residents. The construction of Table Rock and Beaver Lakes to the north and west brought tourism and encouraged the growth of family-style attractions such as Dinosaur World and the Great Passion Play. Eureka rebounded as a tourist destination, especially after incoming artists and others reopened long-shuttered downtown shops in the 1970s.

“The tomato industry of Carroll county ranks along with that of dairying, cattle and poultry. …The plants come into bearing about the middle of July and bear up to the middle of October, giving employment on the farm and at the canning plants at a time when most of the farm work is out of the way.”
Berryville Arkansas promotional booklet, mid-late 1930s

21st-Century Future
Beaver Dam, Carroll County, Arkansas, May 2017.

Beaver Dam, May 2017.

Today there are nearly 28,000 residents, with Berryville, Eureka Springs, and Green Forest as the county’s largest towns. Folks in Berryville and Eureka are often seen as different from one another, by outsiders and by themselves. Eurekans have a higher per-capita income than folks in Berryville, lean liberal in their politics, and look to tourism and the arts for their economy and identity. Industry is the major economic force in Berryville, politics are more conservative, and the population is twice the size of its western neighbor. With its poultry-processing plants, Tyson Foods is the largest employer in Berryville and Green Forest. Both towns have sizable, foreign-born populations.

The Carroll County Collaborative is a nonpolitical group made up of governmental, private, public, and nonprofit entities and organizations. It works to improve life for county residents and provide greater opportunities. Some of its priorities include affordable housing, new business development, conversion charter schools, and workforce development through such means as academies, incubator and apprentice programs, and a culinary institute. The Collaborative believes the county is “poised to be the next NATURAL growth area in Northwest Arkansas.”

“The Kings River divides Carroll County, and that’s where Woodstock and livestock meet.”

State Representative Bryan King of Green Forest
Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, September 19, 2010

“The nice thing about being in Berryville is you can drive ten miles west [to Eureka Springs] and it’s like you’re in a different country. You have restaurants. You have entertainment. Then you can go back home to the real world.”

Berryville Mayor Tim McKinney
Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, September 19, 2010

Carroll County Close-Ups

Civil War
Civil War veterans’ reunion, Basin Spring Park, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, circa 1900.

Civil War veterans’ reunion, Basin Spring Park, Eureka Springs, circa 1900. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-45)

Arkansas seceded from the Union in 1861. Soon, Confederate and Union troops formed, pitting neighbors and family members against one another. While no major battles were fought in the county, there were several skirmishes and much guerilla activity. A group of lawless bushwhackers strung “old and feeble” Lige Massingale over a tree limb and burned his feet to get him to tell of hidden valuables. Having no luck, they set fire to his house. One legend tells how a small band of Confederates were able to capture a larger group of Union soldiers at Hog Scald Hollow by tricking them into getting drunk on corn whiskey. The soldiers seized a wagon as it was driven by their camp and discovered the liquor that had been hidden (on purpose) under the hay.

The upland counties of northern Arkansas had fewer enslaved workers than the rest of the state, owing to the hilly terrain which made plantation-style agriculture impractical. In 1860 the county’s population was just over 9,000 residents, 330 of whom where slaves. While their labor contributed to the economy, it was not a major factor. Perhaps this helps explain, in part, the formation of several Peace Societies along the state’s northern border, including one in Carroll County. While members of the societies opposed the Confederacy, they generally didn’t work against it, often preferring peaceful dissent and home protection to active conflict.

“Alsie [Holland] gathered up a heap of stones…they heard the tramp of horses’ hoofs and the renegades arrived. They came blustering in and demanded food, money and anything of value… One ruffian noticed the pile of stones on the hearth and asked what they were there for; aunt Alsie replied ‘those are secesh [secessionist] biscuits; have one’ she then proceeded to pounce the rocks on the fellow…”

Nora L. Davis Standlee
Carroll County Historical Quarterly, June 1957

Tornadoes
Tornado-damaged home, Green Forest, Arkansas, March 1927.

Tornado-damaged home, Green Forest, March 1927. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-85-14-21)

Carroll County has endured several destructive and deadly tornadoes. In 1927 nineteen people were killed and one hundred injured in Green Forest as a storm damaged the business district and destroyed about fifty homes, wrecking many more. A train car of doctors and nurses came from Harrison to help the injured, taking many to the Eureka Springs Hospital. Ten years later, Green Forest was struck again along with nearby Alpena Pass, with one person dead and twenty injured.

The worst tornado in county history struck Berryville at 10:30 p.m. on October 29, 1942. Right before the storm hit the power went out. As the Wyrick family hid under a mattress, they felt no motion as the storm picked up their house and moved it several feet. At the railroad station the tornado knocked over fifty-ton railroad cars and wrenched a baby out of its mother’s arms, badly hurting the mother and killing the child. Several businesses were demolished, including wholesale grocery houses and canneries, part of the economic lifeblood of the community. Rescuers searched for victims “by torch, flashlight, lanterns, candles, or even matches.” In all, twenty-nine people were killed, with sixty-eight seriously injured. The devastation made national news.

“They’re laying the dead out on the lawns as fast as they can get there out of the wreckage and we’re making regular trips picking up the bodies. Most of them are so badly mutilated that we can’t hope to identify them until relatives start coming in.”

Rex Nelson, undertaker
Northwest Arkansas Times, October 30, 1942

County Seats
Carroll County Courthouse—Eastern Judicial District, Berryville, Arkansas, about 1905.

Carroll County Courthouse—Eastern Judicial District, Berryville, about 1905. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-148)

Carroll County Courthouse—Eastern Judicial District, Berryville, about 1905. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-148)The first seat of government was in Carrollton which, by the mid-1800s, was a large, centrally located, thriving settlement. But when Carroll County land was taken to form Boone County in 1869, Carrollton found itself on the border. A “courthouse war” erupted, pitting Carrollton against Berryville to the northwest. Petitions, elections, lawsuits, and countersuits followed as the two towns struggled for the courthouse and the prestige and revenue it would bring. In 1875, by a narrow margin of twenty-eight votes, the county seat was moved to Berryville.


Carroll County Courthouse—Western Judicial District, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, circa 1910.

Carroll County Courthouse—Western Judicial District, Eureka Springs, circa 1910. Siloam Springs Museum Collection (S-83-300-72)

Across the Kings River was the new boomtown of Eureka Springs. Its residents wanted the convenience of their own courthouse, in part to avoid impassable roads due to the frequent flooding of the Kings River. In 1883 they successfully petitioned the Arkansas Legislature to form two judicial districts with the Kings River as the dividing line. By the late 1880s Green Forest challenged Berryville for its courthouse, saying the building was unsuitable and in disrepair. The votes were tallied and Berryville kept its courthouse (later moving to a modern facility in 1976). The most recent dispute occurred in 2010 when a circuit court judge, a native of Berryville, ruled to consolidate the two judicial districts into one at Berryville. He was unsuccessful. Today the former Berryville courthouse is home to the Carroll County Heritage Center while the old Eureka Springs courthouse is home to the county clerk’s office and city offices.

“I have seen thousands of Texas Longhorn steers pass through town [in front of the courthouse] in droves nearly every week in the year, as well as horses, sheep, goats and one time there was a herd of 500 turkeys…some of the merchants didn’t like the flies the stock drew, especially in warm weather.”
D. Elmer Jones, 1957
Carroll County Historical Quarterly, December 1966

Railroads
The first St. Louis & North Arkansas train pulling into Berryville, April 15, 1901.

The first St. Louis & North Arkansas train pulling into Berryville, April 15, 1901. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-81)

In order to continue the success of Eureka Springs, a railroad was needed to bring health- and pleasure-seekers. Former Arkansas governor Powell Clayton spearheaded a project to connect with the St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad eighteen miles north. In 1883 the Eureka Springs Railway steamed into town. Together the two railroads built and operated the magnificent Crescent Hotel. But the Eureka railroad began to lose money as the fad of “taking the waters” began to wane. It was purchased by the St. Louis & North Arkansas Railroad in 1900, which began expanding the line west. Berryville and Green Forest each offered a bonus to bring the railroad to their towns but the terrain was too difficult and therefore too costly. But Berryville persevered. Residents gave the railroad money, right-of-way, and materials to build a spur line to town. In 1901 residents greeted the train with flower-decorated carriages.

A few years later the new railroad was failing and the line switched hands again. In 1906 it became the Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad (M&NA), followed by the Missouri & Arkansas Railway in 1935 and the Arkansas and Ozarks Railway in 1949. While the railroads had some successful years, there were many problems. The line was abandoned in 1961. In recent years the county has been home to two short, standard-gauge tourist railroads. The Eureka Springs Railroad operated out of Beaver for a time in the 1970s and early 1980s, but didn’t prove successful. The Eureka Springs & North Arkansas Railway, begun in 1981, operates out of the historic 1913 M&NA depot.

“Eureka Springs and Green Forest turned out in masses to help Berryville celebrate the arrival of the first train within her borders and rejoices with her in her good fortune. There is a popular superstition that these towns are jealous of each other, but no suspicion of such a situation showed up on this wonderful day…”
Berryville Progress, June 1901

Education
Clarke’s Academy, Berryville, Arkansas, 1913.

Clarke’s Academy, Berryville, 1913. Pennington, photographer. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-85-18-18)

Eureka Springs had several small schools in its early years, including one for the children of African-American servants of wealthy vacationers. By the 1900s there were many small public school districts throughout the county, some with fanciful names like Blue Eye, Welcome Home, Grassy Nob, Parrott, Bobo, Gobbler, Snow, Possum Trot, and Hottentott. When Mabel Cripps Wilson began her teaching career in 1923 in the White Oak community, students walked one or two miles to school, brought their lunches in Karo syrup buckets, and went without shoes until the weather turned cold. These rural, one-room schools faded as communities dwindled and schools were consolidated in 1965. Today’s schools are in Eureka, Berryville, and Green Forest.

“Parents and guardians, confiding their children and wards in our care, may rest assured no effort will be spared to secure the development of mental powers and the lasting influences of moral principles upon the mind.”
Isaac A. Clarke
Clarke’s Academy for Males and Females, August 15, 1879

Sports and Recreation
Basketball team, Green Forest, Arkansas, 1916

Basketball team, Green Forest, 1916. From left: Hattie Belle, Ruth, Ethel, Eloda, Rhea, Hazel, and Augusta. James and Sue Eldridge Collection (S-96-2-940)

The Saunders Memorial Muzzleloading Shoot began in 1954 in honor of Colonel C. Burton “Buck” Saunders, a longtime Berryville resident who was a skillful marksman and collector of unique firearms. Activities at Luther Owen’s Muzzle Loading Park include firearm matches, camping, and the sale of black-powder merchandise. In 1930 Albert Ingalls, Eureka Springs mayor and president of Crescent College, wanted a basketball team for the girls’ school. Hearing about a winning team in Sparkman, Arkansas (southeast of Hot Springs), he sent his wife Leila to recruit the girls. The Crescent Comets practiced in the basement of the city auditorium, running the distance from the Crescent Hotel and back. The team won two national championships.

“We loved it… And even though the school was for rich girls, our team [the Crescent Comets] was accepted with kindness from the regular students. …We got to dance in the lobby with all the other girls and we looked just as nice. Mrs. Ingalls saw to it. Before the college’s first formal, she bought each member of our team a formal gown from a fancy dress shop in Springfield [Missouri] so we could go and feel like we fit in.”
Mabel Blakely Williams
1886 Crescent Hotel & Spa website, posted September 29, 2012

Health
Health seekers by spring, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, circa 1881

Health seekers by spring, Eureka Springs, about 1881. F. F. Fyler, photographer. Eureka Springs Carnegie Public Library Collection (S-83-325-39)

Carroll County’s first doctor may have been Arthur A. Baker, a blacksmith who taught himself medicine by reading books. Working first out of Carrollton and later Berryville, he traveled many miles by horseback to treat neighbors in need. In 1879 Dr. Alvah Jackson treated a patient suffering from severe skin disease using water from a healing spring. His miracle cure at Basin Spring led to a massive influx of health-seekers and entrepreneurs into what would become Eureka Springs. More springs were discovered, their mineral content tested, and their curative powers touted. Eureka went from a campsite to a town of nearly 4,000 in the space of one year. Entrepreneurs built fancy hotels, bathhouses, and sanitariums to treat the infirm. The springs were said to cure a host of illnesses including rheumatism, catarrh (inflammation of mucus membranes), tuberculosis, hay fever, diabetes, dyspepsia (indigestion), asthma, jaundice, malaria, paralysis, neuralgia (intense nerve pain), gout, cancer, dropsy (excess fluid in tissues or body cavities), and “female troubles.”

Frances Kerens felt that Eureka’s Catholic community needed a religious order to “help solve the problems of those in need of spiritual replenishing.” In 1900 land was purchased for the Hotel Dieu Hospital. Run by the Sisters of Mercy Motherhouse in St. Louis, the facility included a convent, school, chapel, surgical wing, and twenty-five-bed hospital. Financial problems led to its closure in 1913. An infamous chapter in Eureka’s medical history began in 1937 when Norman Baker purchased the shuttered Crescent Hotel to open a cancer hospital. A long-time quack who made millions by swindling the ill with bogus cancer treatments, he was finally sent to jail in 1940.

Other early hospitals include the Don Sawyer Memorial Hospital (now the Eureka Springs Hospital) and the Gentry Hospital in Berryville. In the 1930s and early 1940s, Vera Gentry was a midwife who ran a hospital in her home, welcoming about 300 babies into the world. Doctors used her hospital to perform tonsillectomies and appendectomies. Gentry’s hospital closed when Dr. Parker and Dr. Carter’s eleven-bed hospital opened in town, which in turn closed in 1969, shortly before the opening of Carroll General Hospital (now Mercy Hospital Berryville). Money for the facility came from a county tax and a grant. In 2016 the hospital caused some concern when it ended several services, including emergency ambulance, home health, and hospice.

The rise of Eureka as a spa town coincided with the end of the nation’s interest in “taking the waters.” Many factors contributed to bring this about including major advancements in science, improvements in the standards of medical care, and the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. By the 1910s the grand Crescent Hotel had closed its doors and fewer health-seekers came to town. As Eureka transformed into a tourist town, interest in saving the springs grew. Preservationists restored several springs and their protective structures. Today they are open to the public, although they bear signs warning folks against drinking contaminated water.

“People who have been bedridden sufferers for years come here, drink the waters, and get well, often in a very incredibly short time… Ladies who have languished for years in their terrible mind-wrecking and body-destroying ills arrive here and in a few months at the furthest, are seen with the bloom of health upon their cheeks and rejoicing in restored womanhood.”
Eureka Springs Daily Democrat, December 17, 1891

Natural Resources
A. L. Hanby’s steam-powered sawmill, Winona, Arkansas, 1890s-1900s.

A. L. Hanby’s steam-powered sawmill, Winona, 1890s-1900s. Carroll County Heritage Center Collection (S-84-211-186)

When settlers first came to Carroll County they found abundant natural resources—timber and stone to build with, animal pelts to trade for cash and goods, and plentiful game and fish to eat. One story tells of two women from the Beaver community who, having lost food and livestock to Civil War bushwhackers, were desperate to feed their families. They killed a number of deer by herding them into the woods and flapping their aprons to drive the deer off a high bluff to their death. In recent years the deer population in Eureka Springs had grown so large that, after much opposition, an urban deer hunt was organized in 2013 for bowhunters.

Some of the earliest sawmills were located on the Dry Fork Creek in 1840s. In the days when land could be claimed from the federal government by “improving” and using it, Franzisca Massman of the fast-growing town of Eureka stayed one step ahead of the law. She would find a choice spot (even if it had already been claimed by someone else), erect a cabin, move in a few furnishings, cook a meal, and plow a patch of ground. Once the usable timber had been cut she moved to a new claim. By the 1900s an expanding railroad allowed sawmills to ship lumber, barrel staves, and railroad ties throughout the region. Sawmill operations continued well into the 20th century, with operators producing oak flooring, shipping pallets, and pine posts treated with creosote.

Rumors of vast oil fields in Northwest Arkansas led to the Sure Pop oil well in Eureka in 1921. Promoted by a Texas driller who promised great wealth, business leaders raised $10,000 to buy land. A derrick was built, oil leases were sold, a barbecue was held for 2,500, and newspapers told of the progress at the well site. But the well was never drilled and the Texas promoter left town after the derrick burned down mysteriously. Sure Pop shareholders with left with worthless leases.

The Crescent Hotel and other buildings in Eureka were built using high-quality, local limestone. The Eureka Stone Company, founded in 1904, used the railroad to ship its product throughout the region. When building projects grew scarce, the company fell dormant. In the late 1970s stonemason Don Underwood bought modern equipment and reopened the quarry. Today the company supplies stone for commercial and residential projects throughout Northwest Arkansas and the region. It also takes on restoration projects of some of Eureka’s old buildings and walkways.

“…Ab [Hanby] inherited a disposition to work…he acquired the habit of greasing his muscles with brains, so to speak, and as a result he has sawed more lumber for homes in the Eastern District of Carroll County than any other three men who have been engaged in the lumber business here. He has in time owned no less than forty different mills, having a dozen or more in operation at one time.”
Green Forest Tribune, December 19, 1913

Agriculture
Cans stacked outside the Hays Canning Company, Oak Grove, Arkansas, 1910s.

Cans stacked outside the Hays Canning Company, Oak Grove, 1910s. Larry Parmlee Collection (S-85-5-29)

By 1913 there were large-scale canneries at Berryville, Urbanette, and Green Forest, with the latter shipping 8,000 cases of apples, 6,000 cases of tomatoes, and 6,000 cases of peaches that year. Wheat was an important crop and kept the flour mills in Green Forest, Urbanette, Yocum, and Berryville grinding away. Flour was shipped regionally and even overseas during World War I. By the 1920s the boom-and-bust cycle of crops forced farmers to diversify. Tomatoes were grown in the 1930s, supplying around thirty canneries before the industry declined from disease and the “labor-intensive nature of the tomato business.”

Dairy herds became big business for a time. In the early 1930s the Berryville Cheese Factory operated out of the basement of a hardware store. Later a large stone building was purchased where cans of milk were brought, pasteurized, and made into cheese. Kraft Foods purchased the business in 1946 and modernized the plant, offering high-paying jobs to local workers. The plant closed in 1985, in part due to improvements made to Kraft’s Benton County facility.

While Eureka Springs’ economy shifted from healing springs to tourism over the years, agriculture-related businesses continue to be a mainstay in the rest of the county. In the 1960s Green Forest was home to two of the state’s thirty beekeepers who rented their hives to commercial fruit growers for crop pollination. Three Berryville businessmen started Carroll County Food Products in 1951, processing chickens and turkeys. By 1971 the plant was owned by Tyson Foods. Today Tyson employs nearly 3,000 county residents in several poultry-related businesses, including processing plants in Berryville and Green Forest, making for an annual payroll of $138 million. Tyson, Walmart, Carroll Electric Cooperative Corporation, and Mercy Hospital are the county’s largest employers.

“…the short nutritious grasses have proved to not only contain sufficient nourishment to sustain the life of large herds of cattle, but to actually fatten them during the winter months, and it is an actual fact that thousands of cattle and hogs are bred, born, and raised on the large areas of free range, brought to town, and shipped to market without ever seeing a grain of corn in their lives.”
Oak Leaves, 1914

Diversity
African Episcopal- Methodist Church members at Harding Spring, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, late 1910s.

African Episcopal- Methodist Church members at Harding Spring, Eureka Springs, late 1910s. Harding was the only spring open to African Americans. Eureka Springs Historical Museum Collection (S-99-66-359)

Carroll County’s African American population has always been small in comparison to its white population. In 1860 there were a little over 9,000 residents, 330 of whom were enslaved workers. After the Civil War only thirty-seven former slaves stayed in the area. But the new boomtown of Eureka Springs offered economic opportunities. Blacks owned boarding houses and worked in bathhouses, hotels, laundries, and barbershops. They improved their community by building homes, establishing a school, and organizing an African Methodist-Episcopal Church. But they were segregated from the white community—limited by where they could live, work, shop, and spend leisure time. As the health resort faded in the early 1900s, many moved away.

Berryville was considered a “sundown town.” It’s said that signs were still posted in the 1950s warning blacks not to stay past nightfall. Today the county is largely white, with a few folks self-identifying as African American, Native American, Asian, and Pacific Islander. There is a sizable Latino population, many of whom work in the poultry industry.

“Uncle Dick Fancher…was buried in the colored people’s cemetery [in Eureka Springs]… He was sold as a slave at auction here in Berryville when he was but ten years old and was bought…for $400 [in 1848].”
Benton County Democrat, May 11, 1911

Back to the Land
“First Dance” at the Ozark Mountain Folkfair, Eureka Springs, Arkansas, May 1973.

“First Dance” at the Ozark Mountain Folkfair, Eureka Springs, May 1973. A singer with the Lewis Family (center) dances with a Folkfair staff member. Albert Skiles, photographer. Courtesy Albert Skiles.

In the 1970s Northwest Arkansas saw an influx of young adults seeking a simpler, more meaningful life. Edd Jeffords of Eureka Springs published the Ozark Access Catalog, with tips about buying land and planning a garden. He told newcomers to work hard and “learn about the lives and customs of the people they were living beside.” Over twenty folks lived in the Lothlorien commune near Berryville. They helped their neighbors with farm chores and paid their electric bills by working as waitresses, artisans, and the like. In 1973 Jeffords helped put together the Ozark Mountain Folkfair, a three-day event featuring such musicians as John Lee Hooker and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band. Thousands of youngsters braved heavy rain, mud, and ticks to attend.

Some folks accepted and helped the newcomers while others saw them as immoral hippies and drug addicts who took advantage of the welfare system. In 1972 the Eureka Springs Times-Echo warned of a “well-oiled plot” by the “longhairs” to take over city government. Back-to-the-landers moved into Eureka’s vacant storefronts, selling such things as health food, handmade leather items, and even a “Christ of the Ozarks marijuana cigarette clip.” While some moved away in the 1980s, others stayed and became teachers, artists, and city-council members. Richard Schoeninger, who came to Eureka to edit an underground newspaper, served as mayor in the late 1980s. He jokingly reported two problems with his job—following rules and wearing underwear.

“In not voting, you gave up your right to vote for someone else—who, for all you know, was a Communist, an extremist of one sort or another, or a hippie who has added nothing to the community…”
Dick Fisher, editor, Eureka Springs Times-Echo
Arkansas Gazette, June 25, 1972

“The polite woman who waits on you in any café may likely as not be ‘an extremist of one sort or another’ during her free time. People here are employed making looms, rewiring houses…dishwashing…teaching horseback riding… We certainly haven’t hurt the town economically.”
Maren Statts
Arkansas Gazette, June 25, 1972

Early Settlers
Sneed Cemetery, Osage, Arkansas, mid-late 1900s..

Sneed Cemetery, Osage, mid-late 20th century. Saunders Memorial Museum Collection (S-86-211-74)

The first settlers were Native Americans, having moved west from their ancestral homes ahead of white migration. White chroniclers made mention of Delaware Indians on Long Creek, small bands of Shawnee near what is now Alpena, and a Cherokee settlement north of what is now Berryville. Some of these early residents married the white settlers who came from Tennessee and Kentucky primarily. Around 1820 William Sneed of Kentucky traveled to the Ozarks with his wife, children, and enslaved workers. But, before moving, he surveyed the available land, made his choice, and planted several acres of corn. Making “improvements” by clearing fields, planting crops, and building homes was an important first step when claiming land from the government. In 1830 Sneed and his son, Charles, claimed several thousand acres of the best farmland in Osage Township. Their slaves helped build the Dubuque Road—the first road in the county—from Lead Hill through Carrollton and beyond. Charles served as Carrollton’s first postmaster and as county sheriff. Early court cases were held in the Sneed home.

Some of the first businesses were grist mills, tanneries (to prepare leather), blacksmith shops, and trading posts for things the settlers couldn’t make or grow themselves. Tilford Denton and his brother moved to the county seat of Carrollton in 1837 and set up shop as merchants. One year later their merchandise was valued at $2,800. Some settlers stayed for a short while before moving on. In 1857 Captain Alexander Fancher of Osage led family members and others on a wagon train headed for new opportunities in California. When they stopped at Mountain Meadows, a valley in the Utah Territory, most were attacked and killed by Mormons and Native Americans. The reason for the massacre has been hotly debated since then.

Religion
Baptism at the White River, possibly the Mundell community, Carroll County, Arkansas, circa 1915.

Baptism at the White River, possibly the Mundell Community, about 1915. Eureka Springs Historical Museum Collection (S-99-66-379)

Most early Carroll County settlers were Baptist or Methodist. A Union Baptist church was organized at Joel Plumlee’s Green Forest home in 1838. Services were held once a month, from Saturday morning to Sunday night. There was preaching, Holy Communion, foot washing (a cleansing ritual), and river baptisms. Eureka Springs’ fast-growing and diverse population brought new denominations. Founded in 1882, St. Elizabeth Catholic Church moved into an impressive limestone building in 1909, complete with Italian mosaic floors and marble altars. Christian Science was introduced in the late 1880s by Lou Aldrich. Finding no relief from Eureka’s waters, she used prayer to treat her illness. She went on to become a healer herself, only to face legal action for “practicing healing without a medical license.” The case was dismissed after her attorney asked those healed by the new religion to stand (most stood) and then asked the same for those healed by doctors (nobody stood).

Today there is a wide variety of denominations in the county—Lutheran, Presbyterian, Pentecostal, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Unitarian—even Native American. In Green Forest there are two Spanish-language Southern Baptist churches for the local Latino population. The Rock Springs Baptist Church near Berryville may be the oldest still-active church in the county. It was founded in the early 1850s by Dr. Alvah Jackson, discoverer of Eureka’s famous Basin Spring. But as congregations dwindle, country churches face uncertain futures. Recently the Historic Preservation Alliance of Arkansas put the 1895 Possum Trot Church near Osage on its “Six to Save” list.

“We didn’t have a college education, but we did have a lot of kneeology. You get down on your knees and pray to God for knowledge and understanding.”
Anita Hudson, speaking about Possum Trot Church
Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, June 8, 2009

Carroll County Communities Photo Gallery

Credits

“28 Known Dead in Berryville Storm.” Northwest Arkansas Times, 10-30-1942.

“35th Annual Ozark Folk Festival.” Unknown Eureka Springs newspaper, October 1982.

1927, 1937 killer tornadoes struck Green Forest.” Marilyn Breece, Boone County Historical & Railroad Society, Inc., 8-4-2006.  (accessed 9/2016)

A Fame Not Easily Forgotten: An Autobiography of Eureka Springs. June Westphal & Catharine Osterage, Litho Printers & Bindery: Carthage, Missouri, 2010.

A Pictorial History of Carroll County, Arkansas. Carroll County Newspapers, Inc., Heritage House Publishing Company, Inc.: Marceline, MO, about 1990.

“A Slave Called Mariah.” Shirley H. Pyron, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LV, No. 2 (June 2010).

“Abolish old law entirely, JP says.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 2-24-2011.

About the Festival.” Original Ozark Folk Festival.  (accessed 10/2016)

“An Important ‘Rental’ Item: The Honeybee!” Ernie Deane, Arkansas Gazette, 5-26-1968.

“An Ozarks Original: Eureka Springs, Arkansas, is a town at odds with the ordinary.” Crescent Dragonwagon, Discovery, Summer 1987.

“An Economic Analysis of Carroll County in Northwest Arkansas.” Center for Business and Economic Research, Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas, 8-30-2002.  (accessed 9/2016)

An Outlander’s History of Carroll County, Arkansas. Jim Lair & O. Klute Braswell, Walsworth Publishing Co, Inc.: Marceline, Missouri, 1983.

Arkansas Peace Society.” Guy Lancaster, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture.  (accessed 9/2016)

“Around Town.” Virginia Tyler, Eureka Springs Times-Echo, 11-11-1982.

“Back to the Land, Again: Eureka-area commune members return for reunion.” Jennifer Jackson, Lovely County Citizen, 5-29-2014.

“Beaver woman recalls start of Holiday Island,” Kathryn Lucariello, Carroll County News, 11-27-2012.

Berryville.” Cindy Williams, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 9/2016)

“Berryville Kraft Cheese Plant.” David Motherwell, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LLI, No. 4 (December 2007).

“Berryville Suffers Tornado.” Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Autumn 1993).

Boone County and Its People. Ralph R. Rea, Van Buren, Arkansas: Press-Argus, 1955.

“Bowhunting inside town culls 12 deer.” Bill Bowden, Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 3-3-2013.

Building Northwest Arkansas.” Shiloh Museum of Ozark History. (accessed 10/2016)

“Canning, Refrigerator Cars, and Fresh Produce.” Oak Leaves, Spring 1990.

Carroll County.” C. J. Miller, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 9/2016)

Carroll County, Arkansas.” Community & Conflict: The Impact of the Civil War in the Ozarks. (accessed 9/2016)

Carroll County, Arkansas: History and Reminiscences. Mary Louise Chittendon, editor. Carroll County Historical Society: Berryville, Arkansas, 2005.

“Carroll County, Arkansas: Its Land and Its People” (a reprint of a 1914 publication of Oak Leaves), unknown newspaper clipping, 8/1979.

Carroll County Churches.” ShareFaith. (accessed 10/2016)

Carroll County Collaborative.” Eureka Springs: Mayor’s Task Force on Economic Development, Greater Eureka Springs Chamber of Commerce. (accessed 10/2016)

“Carroll County schools: History, events retold.” Sylvia Jamison, Eureka Springs Times-Echo, 8-9-1985.

“Carroll County’s Leading Cannery at Green Forest.” Oak Leaves, Spring 1990.

“Carroll Electric Cooperative a Mighty Force in Development of Arkansas Ozarks,” Ozark Mountaineer, September 1956

Carrollton” Mike Polston, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture.  (accessed 9/2016)

Cherokee.” Leslie Stewart-Abernathy, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

“Christ of Ozarks dark after 45 years.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 12-10-2012.

Church Directory.Carroll County News. (accessed 10/2016)

“Civil War cave in heart of city to get a facelift.” Sheilah Downey, Carroll County News, 6-17-1993.

“Civil War surrounded area with historical events.” Jim Fletcher, Carroll County News, 11/1992.

Clarke’s Academy for Males and Females broadsheet. Berryville, 8-15-1879. (Clarke’s Academy research file, Shiloh Museum)

“Crescent College and Conservatory.” Jenny Vego, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

“Dr. A.E. Quinn.” unattributed and undated article. (Quinn research file, Shiloh Museum)

“Early Sawmills of Carroll County.” Evelyn Johnson, Carroll County Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. XXIV, No. 1 (Spring 1979).

“Eccentricity At an Old Spa In the Ozarks.” Edward Harper, New York Times, 5-28-1989.

“ES looking to the future.” Jon Parham, Carroll County News, March 1995.

ES&NA Railway.”  (accessed 10/2016)

Eureka Springs (Carroll County).” Bethany May, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Eureka Springs: City of Healing Waters. June Westphal & Kate Cooper, The History Press: Charleston, South Carolina, 2012.

“Eureka Springs Eternal: New Orleans Meets Switzerland In The Ozarks.” Bill Bowden, Spectrum, February 14, 1989.

“Eureka Springs in Black and White: The Lost History of an African-American Neighborhood.” Jacqueline Froelich, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Vol. LVI, No. 2 (Summer 1997).

Eureka Springs Pictorial History. Eureka Springs Carnegie Public Library Association, Eureka Springs Times-Echo, 1975.

“Eureka Springs: The portrait of a town hibernating for winter.” Jerry Dean, Arkansas Gazette, 1-31-1989.

Eureka Stone Company. (accessed 9/2016)

“Evolution of the Berryville Court Square Park.” O. Klute Braswell, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. XI, No. 4 (December 1966).

“Flags proposal raises a flap.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 11-24-2013.

“Gathering ‘Possums in the Ozarks.” Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LIII, No. 4 (December 2008).

Gerald Lyman Kenneth Smith (1898-1976).” Glen Jeansonne & Michael Gauger, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 9/2016)

Green Forest (Carroll County).” Steven Teske, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Healing Waters.” Shiloh Museum of Ozark History. (accessed 9/2016)

“Hipbillies and Hillbillies: Back-to-the-Landers in the Arkansas Ozarks during the 1970s.” Jared M. Phillips, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Vol. LXXV, No. 2 (Summer 2016).

History.” St. Elizabeth of Hungary Catholic Church.  (accessed 10/2016)

History of Carroll County Arkansas. (Reprinted in part from The Goodspeed Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Northwestern Arkansas and A Reminiscent History of the Ozark Region, 1889 & 1892, respectively), Mary Louise Chittendon, editor, Carroll County Historical Society: Berryville, Arkansas, 2005.

The History and Families of Carroll County, Arkansas. Carroll County Historical and Genealogical Society, Turner Publishing Co.: Paducah, Tennessee, 2003.

Hog Scald.” John Jennings, The History of Hogscald.  (accessed 9/2016)

“Holiday Islands enjoys rich history and bright future,” David Frank Dempsy, Eureka Springs Echo, March 1996

“Limestone part of Eureka Springs’ past and present,” Vernon Tucker, Flashlight, September 1983.

“‘Little Switzerland’ focus of clash between old, new,” Ed Housewright, Arkansas Gazette, 7-20-1986.

“Longhairs, Sacred Projects Reviving Eureka Springs, Ginger Shiras, Arkansas Gazette, 6-25-1972.

“Looking for the Center of the Universe: Edd Jeffords and Ozark In-migration,” Mike Luster, unpublished manuscript, Shiloh Museum research files. 

“Many responsible for hospital,” Karen Maierhofer, Carroll County News(?) (Carroll General Hospital Edition), 10/1984.

Mercy-BV administrator points to positives.” Scott Loftis, Carroll County News, 7-12-2016. (accessed 10/2016)

Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad (M&NA).” H. Glenn Mosenthin, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Mountain Meadows Massacre.” James Finck, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture.  (accessed 10/2016)

“New Life for the Stair-Step Town,” Dickson Terry, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8-31-1958.

Norman Baker (1882-1958).” Michael B. Dougan, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

“Old Carrollton.” Boyd W. Johnson, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3 (March 1957).

Osage.” George Sabo III, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Other Days at Eureka Springs. Nellie A. Mills, 1950.

Ozark Mountain Folkfair program, 1973. Posted by Bob Treat on Flickr.(accessed 10/2016)

Ozark Mountain Folk Fair.” April Griffith, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. (accessed 10/2016)

Ozark Mountain Folk Fair: History in Our Backyard.” April Griffith, The Back-Stay (Shiloh Museum), 6-7-2013. (accessed 10/2016)

“Passion Play cuts schedule, makes money.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 8-23-2013.

“Play Ball! A Little History of Baseball in Carroll County.” June Westphal & Vineta Wingate, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LVI, No. 3 (September 2011).

Quick Facts, Carroll County, Arkansas.” United States Census Bureau. (accessed 9/2016)

“Ready, aim, fire Saunders Memorial Shoot sets sights on this weekend.” Kelby Newcomb, Carroll County News, 9-21-2016.

Renowned Crescent Comet Mabel Williams.” 1886 Crescent Hotel & Spa, posted 9-29-2012. (accessed 10/2016).

“Resort Community Marks First Anniversary.” Holiday Island Sun, August 1971.

“River, politics, culture divide Carroll County.” Bill Bowden, Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 9-19-2010.

Rock Springs Missionary Baptist Church. unknown author, 1956. (Rock Springs Southern Baptist Church research file, Shiloh Museum)

“Same-sex marriage licensing starts, stops.” Kristal Kuyendall, Lovely County Citizen, 5-15-2014.

Saunders Museum Turns 50.” E. Alan Long, Carroll County News, 6-13-2005. (accessed 10/2016)

“Settlement Across Northern Arkansas as Influenced by the Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad.” Lawrence R. Handley, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 (Winter 1974).

“Siblings trying to save old church.” Bill Bowden, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 6-8-2009.

“Stories of the Civil War and Early Carroll County.” Nora L. Davis Standlee, Carroll County Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. III, No. 3 (6/1957).

“Tennis Affair in Jeopardy After 70 Yrs.” David McNeal, Carroll County News, 11-23-1989.

The Benge Detachment of Cherokees on the Trail of Tears.” Gloria Young, Northwest Arkansas Heritage Trail Partners.  (accessed 10/2016

“The best little history of the best county in Arkansas.” Mike Ellis, Carroll County News (Newcomer’s Guide), Summer 1998.

“The Hanbys: ‘Lumber Kings of Caroll County.'” Jim Lair, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. XXXI, No. 2 (Sumer 1985).

The History and Families of Carroll County, Arkansas. Carroll County Historical and Genealogical Society, Turner Publishing Co.: Paducah, KY, 2003.

“The Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad Comes to Berryville, Arkansas.” Lucile Russell Dodson, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. V, No. 1 (March 1960).

“The Stephen Foster of the Ozarks.” Carroll County Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. XXIV, No. 1 (Spring 1979).

“The Trail of Tears went through Carroll County.” David Motherwell, Carroll County Historical Quarterly, Vol. LIII, No. 1 (March 2008).

“The way we were…” Lanny Gibson, unknown & undated newspaper clipping (likely Eureka Springs Times-Echo, Fall 1993)

“The whole town moved: Carrollton still on the map, despite Alpena,” Jim Fletcher, Green Forest Tribune, 8-11-1993.

“Toby, Absie and Fred Help Spice Up Folk Festival.” Ernie Dean, Arkansas Gazette, 10-21-1958.

Tornado Disaster In Arkansas. Pathe Newsreel (1942), GettyImages.  (accessed 9/2016)

“Tornado Hits Arkansas Town Killing 28 Persons.” Tuscaloosa [Alabama] News, 10-30-1942.

“Tourist town puts old strengths, new interests out front.” Kevin Kinder, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 2-10-2008.

“Two courthouses cause history of controversy.” Silvia Jamison, Eureka Springs Times-Echo, 5-9-1985.

Tyson Expansion: Poultry giant proposes $136M plant in Green Forest.” Scott Loftis, Carroll County News, 4-15-2016.  (accessed 9/2016)

Tyson Foods Proposes to Build Additional Plant in Arkansas.” Tyson Foods, 4-14-2016.  (accessed 12/2016)

“Union soldiers recognized a good thing.” Mike Ellis, Carroll County News, 9-1-1999.

Unpublished manuscript about Northwest Arkansas railroad history, Tom Duggan, Shiloh Museum research files, 2012-2014.

“Vera Gentry’s Hospital.” Shirley H. Pyron, Carroll County Historical Society, Vol. LVI, No. 1 (March 2011).

Welcome to Eureka Springs!” Greater Eureka Springs Chamber of Commerce. (accessed 9/2016)

“What about those new Ozark communes?” James Andrews, Memphis Commercial Appeal, circa 1974.

What’s in a Name? The History Behind Harmon Park.” Kechia Bentley More, River Valley Online, 9-1-2006.  (accessed 10/2016)

“When Bales of Cotton Rolled Through Town.” D. Elmer Jones, Carroll County Historical Society, Vol. III, No. 3 (9/1958)

“Which came first, Presbyterians or Baptists?” E. Alan Long, Carroll County News, 5-16-2003.

“White River residents accepted unusual Epsom salts deposit,” Billie Jines, Northwest Arkansas Morning News, 2-22-1987.

Working Together for Carroll County.” Eureka Springs: Mayor’s Task Force on Economic Development, Greater Eureka Springs Chamber of Commerce.  (accessed 10/2016)