World War I Poster

World War I poster from FranceDonated by Lonnie Walker

The 1918 World War I poster from France was discovered in a trunk in an old hotel in Eureka Springs (Carroll County). The trunk, which contained posters, army manuals, maps, and letters, had belonged to 1st Lt. John Harold Lawson (1897-1966), who served with the Illinois 123rd Field Artillery 33rd Division during World War I. Following the war,Lawson returned to his hometown of Kewanee, Illinois, where he lived with his mother while attending college. From 1938 to 1960 he and his wife, Leora, lived in Topeka, Kansas, where he worked as an accountant for Kansas Power and Light Company. Both John and Leora Lawson are buried in the Eureka Springs Cemetery.

The “Union of French Associations Against Enemy Propaganda” commissioned French artist Maurice Neumont to create the artwork. Neumont depicts a soldier wearing a gas mask standing on a war-torn field. Behind him in a cloud of smoke is the phrase, “They Shall Not Pass! 1914–1918.” At the bottom of the poster is a message from the soldier, who is speaking to French civilians. It reads,

Twice I have held and won on the Marne,
Civilian, my brother,
The underhanded offensive of the “white peace” will assault you in your turn,
Like me, you must hold and win, be strong and shrewd,
Beware of German hypocrisy.

The soldier refers to two battles that were waged along the Marne River in France; both were Allied victories over the German armies. “White Peace” is a term used to describe a settlement where nations agree to cease fighting, with no annexations or reparations exchanged. The implyed message of the poster is that, for France, true peace can only come with victory.

Donated by Lonnie Walker

The 1918 World War I poster from France was discovered in a trunk in an old hotel in Eureka Springs (Carroll County). The trunk, which contained posters, army manuals, maps, and letters, had belonged to 1st Lt. John Harold Lawson (1897-1966), who served with the Illinois 123rd Field Artillery 33rd Division during World War I. Following the war,Lawson returned to his hometown of Kewanee, Illinois, where he lived with his mother while attending college. From 1938 to 1960 he and his wife, Leora, lived in Topeka, Kansas, where he worked as an accountant for Kansas Power and Light Company. Both John and Leora Lawson are buried in the Eureka Springs Cemetery.

The “Union of French Associations Against Enemy Propaganda” commissioned French artist Maurice Neumont to create the artwork. Neumont depicts a soldier wearing a gas mask standing on a war-torn field. Behind him in a cloud of smoke is the phrase, “They Shall Not Pass! 1914–1918.” At the bottom of the poster is a message from the soldier, who is speaking to French civilians. It reads,

Twice I have held and won on the Marne,
Civilian, my brother,
The underhanded offensive of the “white peace” will assault you in your turn,
Like me, you must hold and win, be strong and shrewd,
Beware of German hypocrisy.

The soldier refers to two battles that were waged along the Marne River in France; both were Allied victories over the German armies. “White Peace” is a term used to describe a settlement where nations agree to cease fighting, with no annexations or reparations exchanged. The implyed message of the poster is that, for France, true peace can only come with victory.

Powwow Souvenir

1907 powwow souvenirIn October 1907, Collinsville, Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), was the site of an event billed as “the last great powwow before [Oklahoma] statehood.” Hosted by Shawnee chief Henry Spybuck, tribal members from throughout Oklahoma came to participate in traditional ceremonies. The attendance of Geronimo, chief of the Apaches, was fuel for much newspaper fodder, as he was being held as a prisoner of war at Fort Sill in Lawton, Oklahoma. According to the Indian Republicannewspaper (Tulsa, Oklahoma), the U.S. government granted Geronimo and other Apache Indians living on Fort Sill’s “military reservation” permission to travel to the powwow, under escort of armed soldiers. Other chiefs at the powwow included Cherokee chief William Charles Rogers,  Osage chief O lo co wah la, Comanche chief Quanah Parker, and Kiowa chief Lone Wolf.

This souvenir badge from the 1907 powwow is part of the Shiloh Museum’s William Guy Howard Collection. Howard (1876-1965) moved to Northwest Arkansas from Nebraska as a young boy. He had a lifetime of public service in Springdale as city attorney during World War I, mayor during World War II, and municipal judge in the 1950s. To many local folks, Howard was known simply as “the Judge.” He was also a collector of prehistoric and Native American artifacts, which he displayed floor-to-ceiling in his home. In 1966 the Springdale City Council voted to purchase Howard’s massive collection of some 10,000 prehistoric and historic artifacts and 260 books and pamphlets on anthropology and archeology. This was the founding collection of the Shiloh Museum.

In October 1907, Collinsville, Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), was the site of an event billed as “the last great powwow before [Oklahoma] statehood.” Hosted by Shawnee chief Henry Spybuck, tribal members from throughout Oklahoma came to participate in traditional ceremonies. The attendance of Geronimo, chief of the Apaches, was fuel for much newspaper fodder, as he was being held as a prisoner of war at Fort Sill in Lawton, Oklahoma. According to the Indian Republican newspaper (Tulsa, Oklahoma), the U.S. government granted Geronimo and other Apache Indians living on Fort Sill’s “military reservation” permission to travel to the powwow, under escort of armed soldiers. Other chiefs at the powwow included Cherokee chief William Charles Rogers,  Osage chief O lo co wah la, Comanche chief Quanah Parker, and Kiowa chief Lone Wolf.

This souvenir badge from the 1907 powwow is part of the Shiloh Museum’s William Guy Howard Collection. Howard (1876-1965) moved to Northwest Arkansas from Nebraska as a young boy. He had a lifetime of public service in Springdale as city attorney during World War I, mayor during World War II, and municipal judge in the 1950s. To many local folks, Howard was known simply as “the Judge.” He was also a collector of prehistoric and Native American artifacts, which he displayed floor-to-ceiling in his home. In 1966 the Springdale City Council voted to purchase Howard’s massive collection of some 10,000 prehistoric and historic artifacts and 260 books and pamphlets on anthropology and archeology. This was the founding collection of the Shiloh Museum.

Handkerchief

Donated by Lillian Howard

This handkerchief belonged to Alpha “Alphie” Williams, who was born near War Eagle (Madison County) in 1907, the youngest of eight children. The Williams family moved to the south Madison County community of St. Paul, where Alpha lived until she was in her twenties. She taught school for a time in Madison County, then graduated from the University of Arkansas and attended graduate school at the University of Chicago’s School of Social Services Administration. Williams went on to become a social worker in Indiana, Missouri, and Arkansas. Her career also included working for the United Service Organizations (USO) and also for the Arkansas state welfare system, where she specialized in cases involving abused children.

Alpha Williams eventually came back home to south Madison County, where she lived until her death in 1993.

Donated by Lillian Howard

This handkerchief belonged to Alpha “Alphie” Williams, who was born near War Eagle (Madison County) in 1907, the youngest of eight children. The Williams family moved to the south Madison County community of St. Paul, where Alpha lived until she was in her twenties. She taught school for a time in Madison County, then graduated from the University of Arkansas and attended graduate school at the University of Chicago’s School of Social Services Administration.  Williams went on to become a social worker in Indiana, Missouri, and Arkansas. Her career also included working for the United Service Organizations (USO) and also for the Arkansas state welfare system, where she specialized in cases involving abused children.

Alpha Williams eventually came back home to south Madison County, where she lived until her death in 1993.

Home Legion Medal

Donated by Paula Thompson

Home Legion Medal of Distinguished Service in HomemakingIn 1944, homemakers across America joined the Betty Crocker Home Legion, an outreach project offered through the Betty Crocker Radio Cooking School. Membership in the cooking school was free of charge upon completing a registration form and answering a list of questions designed to demonstrate a homemaker’s skills in meal-planning, household economy, and other domestic skills. The questionnaires were reviewed by a panel of “experienced homemakers,” and those who passed muster were awarded this pin-backed medal (it measures about 1.75 inches in size), along with a suitable-for-framing copy of the Homemakers Creed:

I believe homemaking is a noble and challenging career.
I believe homemaking is an art requiring many different skills.
I believe homemaking requires the best of my efforts, my abilities, and my thinking.
I believe home reflects the spirit of the homemaker.
I believe home should be a place of peace, joy, and contentment.
I believe no task is too humble that contributes to the cleanliness, the order, the health, the well being of the household.
I believe a homemaker must be true to the highest ideals of love, loyalty, service, and religion.
I believe home must be an influence for good in the neighborhood, the community, the country.

This is to certify that [member’s name] is a member of the Home Legion dedicated to good homemaking for a better world.

Signed, Betty Crocker

By the late 1940s, over 70,000 women were members of Betty Crocker’s Home Legion program.

By the way, Betty Crocker is not a real person, but was born in 1921 as part of an advertising campaign for Washburn-Crosby Company, a flour milling company that was the forerunner of General Mills.

Donated by Paula Thompson

In 1944, homemakers across America were given the opportunity to join the Betty Crocker Home Legion, an outreach project offered through the Betty Crocker Radio Cooking School. Membership in the cooking school was of charge upon completing a registration form and answering a list of questions designed to demonstrate a homemaker’s skills in meal-planning, household economy, and other domestic skills. The questionnaires were reviewed by a panel of “experienced homemakers,” and those who passed muster were awarded this pin-backed medal (it measures about 1.75 inches in size), along with a suitable-for-framing copy of the Homemakers Creed:, along with a suitable-for-framing copy of the Homemakers Creed:

I believe homemaking is a noble and challenging career.
I believe homemaking is an art requiring many different skills.
I believe homemaking requires the best of my efforts, my abilities, and my thinking.
I believe home reflects the spirit of the homemaker.
I believe home should be a place of peace, joy, and contentment.
I believe no task is too humble that contributes to the cleanliness, the order, the health, the well being of the household.
I believe a homemaker must be true to the highest ideals of love, loyalty, service, and religion.
I believe home must be an influence for good in the neighborhood, the community, the country.

This is to certify that [member’s name] is a member of the Home Legion dedicated to good homemaking for a better world.

Signed, Betty Crocker

By the late 1940s, over 70,000 women were members of Betty Crocker’s Home Legion program.

By the way, Betty Crocker is not a real person, but was born in 1921 as part of an advertising campaign for Washburn-Crosby Company, a flour milling company that was the forerunner of General Mills.

 

Child’s Rocking Chair

Jack Elzey with the family cats, dog, and child’s rocking chair, Madison County, circa 1910. William H. Chenault Collection (S-2005-37-62)

Donated by William H. Chenault

This child’s rocking chair first belonged to Netia Burkett Elzey (1888-1965), who lived her whole life near the Madison County community of Marble. Netia married Walter Harrison “Watt” Elzey (1885-1958) in 1906. The Elzeys farmed and raised three children—Jack, Lloyd, and Viola.

Watt Elzey liked to take photographs in his spare time, and he often used Netia’s little rocker as a prop in family photos. The chair suffered a broken leg in the 1940s or 1950s, but was later repaired by Netia and Watt’s son Lloyd.

 

Jack Elzey with the family cats, dog, and child’s rocking chair, Madison County, circa 1910. William H. Chenault Collection (S-2005-37-62)

Donated by William H. Chenault

This child’s rocking chair first belonged to Netia Burkett Elzey (1888-1965), who lived her whole life near the Madison County community of Marble. Netia married Walter Harrison “Watt” Elzey (1885-1958) in 1906. The Elzeys farmed and raised three children—Jack, Lloyd, and Viola.

Watt Elzey liked to take photographs in his spare time, and he often used Netia’s little rocker as a prop in family photos. The chair suffered a broken leg in the 1940s or 1950s, but was later repaired by Netia and Watt’s son Lloyd.

Pillow Sham

Donated by Norman and Elsie Young

During World War II, souvenir pillow shams were popular gifts sent from soldiers to family and friends back home. This sham boasts a golden castle in the upper left hand corner, the symbol for the Army Corps of Engineers. In the upper right corner, the blue star on a red and white background is a symbol used by the Army Service Forces from March 9, 1942 through June 11, 1946. The large symbol in the center of the sham represents Fort Leonard Wood’s Engineer Replacement Training Center. The phrase “Victoria Ex Scientia” means “Victory from Knowledge.”

Norman Young (1913-1989) was born near the Madison County community of Wesley. He enlisted in the Army in 1943, trained at Fort Leonard Wood in Missouri, and served with the Army Corps of Engineers. Young’s overseas tour of duty took him to Italy.  PFC Norman Young was discharged from service on October 17, 1945. He returned home to Northwest Arkansas, married Elsie Cress, and worked as a custodian at the University of Arkansas.